Overhead squat assessment

The over head squat is one of the most valuable assessment you can do with your patient. Before starting assessment one should check rang of motion of all joints.


This test for bilateral symmetrical mobility and stability of hip, knee and ankle joint .In addition to check shoulder as well as thoracic mobility.

Red flag must be address before assessment.

How to perform?

  • Instruct the patient for 5 repetitions of squat as per his comforts zone.
  • Heel should not off the ground while performing task.
  • You must address in your document regarding pain or discomfort during squatting.
  • Do not let the patient know what you are looking for otherwise patient might adjust him self and we may get false result.
  • We should consider different view motion from different angles.


Observation check list:

1). Feet pronate and externally rotate:

This may indicate tightness in the soleus, gastrocnemius, peroneals, hamstring and piriformis and/or weakness in the gluteus medius. There may also be a restriction in ankle joint dorsiflexion, since the body will pronate the foot to gain more motion in the ankle mortise. If dorsiflexion is limited, there is a posterior chain extensibility dysfunction or ankle joint extensibility problem, or both.

2). Knees buckle / hip internal rotation:

May indicate weak/inhibited gluteus maximus/medius, tight adductor complex and iliotibial band. May be an inability to control hip movements, pointing to an underlying motor control stability problem.

3). Low back arches:

There might be tight iliopsoas and/or other hip flexors and latissimus dorsi,
compensating for a weak core.

4). Low back rounds:
It may reflects the overactive external obliques, compensating for a weak core. Observe if there is a rotational component to the movement when the low back rounds due to the fascial attachment of the spiral line of myofascial from the external oblique to the opposite shoulder.
5). Arms fall forward:
It may indicate tight latissimus dorsi and /or pectoralis major/minor and weak lower trapezius, rhomboids, teres minor and infraspinatus.
6). Lateral shift:
A shift to either the right or left side during any part of the movement may indicate a motor control stability problem or an underlying self-protective mechanism to deviate away from pain.
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