Attachments and Innervation:

• Origin: Attached proximally to the lateral condyle and proximal half of the lateral surface of the tibia, interosseous membrane, deep fascia and lateral intermuscular septum.

Insertion: the Medial and plantar surface of the medial cuneiform and to the base of the first metatarsal bone.

Nerve: Deep peroneal nerve, splitting from the common fibular nerve, via the sciatic nerve, originating from the lumbosacral plexus with nerve roots L4, L5, and sometimes S1.

Action:
• Ankle: Primary dorsiflexor of the ankle and assists with inversion.

• Foot: Dorsiflexion of the 1st metatarsal  contributing to forefoot supination

Integrated Function:

Stabilization: Ankle joint, cuneonavicular and 1st tarsometatarsal joints,  also indirectly contribute to the stability of the talonavicular joint.

Eccentrically Decelerates:   Ankle eversion and plantar flexion,  Forefoot pronation.

The above functions are particular importance during gait. The tibialis anterior responsible for the foot from heel strike to foot-flat. This is essecial for optimal shock absorption and a smooth gait pattern.

Synergists:  

The tibialis anterior is the primary dorsiflexor of the ankle joint. Overactive plantar flexors leads to inhibition of tibialis anterior. EHL& EDL  will become synergistically dominant.

 Arthrokinematics:

Transverse Tarsal Joint:

The tibialis anterior creates a compressive force, superior glide, and lateral rotation of the medial cuneiform on the navicular, the first metatarsal on the 1st MCJ. In addition to that, the tibialis anterior is capable of dorsiflexing the first ray. These forces are balanced by the peroneus longus. The relationship between the tibialis anterior and the peroneus longus is gain optimal control of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

Tibiotalar Joint (Ankle):   

The talus is one of the few bones in the body which has no muscular attachment. The Talus Motion is dependent on forces generated by muscles that attach to the other bones. This includes  posterior glide of the talus on the tibia, which is optimal to gain optimal dorsiflexion ROM.

Facial Integration:

The iliotibial band and lateral intermuscular septum creates a complicated   network distally which are as follows :

• Lateral retinaculum and the patellar tendon
• The lateral collateral ligament at the knee
• Fibular head
• Biceps femoris tendon
• Anterior tibiofibular ligament

What Tom Myers thoughts:  there may be a connection between the ITB, the lateral retinaculum of the knee or potentially the biceps femoris tendon and the tibialis anterior. This fascial connection is continuous with periosteum, which is adhered to bone and unlikely to transmit mechanical force. Further, it is more likely that the ITB and biceps femoris invest into the superficial sheath of fascia that covers the tibialis anterior  but not into tendon or fibers of the muscle itself.

Postural Dysfunction:

This muscle has a propensity toward relative under-activity . however a compensatory increase in activity during functional tasks may lead to symptoms generally associated with over-activity and overuse .it has no significance role in lumbopwlvic dysfunction and upper body dysfunction dysfunction.

Lower Leg Dysfunction (LLD):

Lower leg dysfunction is most often driven by a lack of dorsiflexion and/or excessive eversion/pronation. This implies that the tibialis anterior has adaptively lengthened, and lack of strength to dorsiflex the foot, as well as eccentrically decelerate plantar flexion and eversion. This may be due to altered reciprocal inhibition as a result of over-activity of the plantar flexors and evertors or arthrokinematic restrictions resulting from a decrease in posterior glide of the talus and increased resistance or loss of range of motion during dorsiflexion.

 

Referances :

  1. Leon Chaitow, Muscle Energy Techniques: Third Edition, © Pearson Professional Limited 2007
  2. Tom Myers, Anatomy Trains: Second Edition. © Elsevier Limited 2009
  3. Shirley A Sahrmann, Diagnoses and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes, © 2002 Mosby Inc.
  4. Phillip Page, Clare Frank, Robert Lardner, Assessment and Treatment of Muscle Imbalance: The Janda Approach © 2010 Benchmark Physical Therapy, Inc., Clare C. Frank, and Robert Lardner
  5. Donald A. Neumann, “Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System: Foundations of Rehabilitation – 2nd Edition” © 2012 Mosby, Inc.
  6.  David G. Simons, Janet Travell, Lois S. Simons, Travell & Simmons’ Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction, The Trigger Point Manual, Volume 1. Upper Half of Body: Second Edition,© 1999 Williams and Wilkens
  7. Cynthia C. Norkin, Pamela K. Levangie, Joint Structure and Function: A Comprehensive Analysis: Fifth Edition © 2011 F.A. Davis Company
  8.  Karel Lewit. Manipulative Therapy: Musuloskeletal Medicine © 2007 Elsevier
  9.  Lee, S. S., & Piazza, S. J. (2008). Inversion–eversion moment arms of gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior measured in vivo. Journal of biomechanics, 41(16), 3366-3370
  10. Luchanscky E., Paz Z: Variations in the Insertion of the Tibialis Anterior Muscle. Anat Anz 161:129-136, 1986
  11. Henriksson-LArsen K: Distribution, number and size of different fiber types in whole cross-sections of female m tibialis anterior. An enzyme histochemical study. Acta Physiol Scand 123;229-235, 1985